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Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, and the Great Lakes region. The state borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and Ontario, Canada to the northwest, New York to the north and New Jersey to the east. The Appalachian Mountains run through the middle of the state.

Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 6th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,560,297), Pittsburgh (305,801), Allentown (118,577), Erie (100,671), and Reading (89,893). The state capital is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary.

The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it was originally founded in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the son of the state's namesake. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in this state.


Downtown Philadelphia

A map of Pennsylvania counties

The Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg

The Pittsburgh skyline


Population Statistics

Census Counts (April 1)
201012,702,37964.11 %308,745,538
200012,281,05464.36 %281,421,906
199011,882,84254.78 %248,790,925
198011,863,89545.24 %226,545,805
2000 to 2010 % change3.4 %429.7 %
1990 to 2010 % change6.9 %4524.1 %
1980 to 2010 % change7.1 %4536.3 %

Components of Population Change in 2014NumberRankPercent of U.S.U.S.
Net Domestic Migration-31,44847
Net International Migration29,06092.92 %995,944
Natural Increase (births minus deaths)13,432270.99 %1,363,581
Births142,03263.59 %3,957,577
Deaths128,60054.96 %2,593,996

Economy Statistics
Real Gross Domestic Product by State over Time (millions of chained 2009 dollars)Adj. Amount
RankChange Index
(YR 2009=100)
Change 2010 to 201430,166105.325

Per Capita Personal IncomeNumberRankPercent of U.S.
Per Capita Income - 2014$47,72718103.5 %
Per Capita Income - 2004 (adj. for inflation)$43,44719101.1 %
Per Capita Income - 1994 (adj. for inflation)$35,71019100.3 %
Per Capita Income - 1984 (adj. for inflation)$30,6872297.5 %
10-Year % Change9.9 %19
20-Year % Change33.7 %22
30-Year % Change55.5 %18