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Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 23rd-most populous of the 50 United States. At 1,300 miles (2,100 km), Alabama has one of the longest navigable inland waterways in the nation.

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern states, suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, White rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s, as it did not regularly reapportion the legislature from 1901 to 1961; urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. African Americans and poor whites were essentially disenfranchised altogether by the state constitution of 1901, a status that continued into the mid-1960s before being alleviated by federal legislation. Exclusion of minorities continued under at-large voting systems in most counties; some changes were made through a series of omnibus court cases in the late 1980s to establish different electoral systems.

Following World War II, Alabama experienced growth as the economy of the state changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The power of the Solid South in Congress gained the establishment or expansion of multiple United States Armed Forces installations, which helped to bridge the gap between an agricultural and industrial economy during the mid-20th century. The state economy in the 21st century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.

Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the Cotton State. The state tree is the Longleaf Pine, and the state flower is the Camellia. The capital of Alabama is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham, which has long been the most industrialized city, and largest city by total land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists.


The U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL

Birmingham, AL skyline at night. It is the largest city in Alabama, with a population of 212,237 (2010)

Alabama population density map


Population Statistics

Census Counts (April 1)
20104,779,736231.55 %308,745,538
20004,447,100231.58 %281,421,906
19904,040,389221.62 %248,790,925
19803,893,888221.72 %226,545,805
2000 to 2010 % change7.5 %279.7 %
1990 to 2010 % change18.3 %2724.1 %
1980 to 2010 % change22.7 %2636.3 %

Components of Population Change in 2014NumberRankPercent of U.S.U.S.
Net Domestic Migration2,03417
Net International Migration5,606320.56 %995,944
Natural Increase (births minus deaths)8,266370.61 %1,363,581
Births58,059241.47 %3,957,577
Deaths49,793191.92 %2,593,996

Economy Statistics

Real Gross Domestic Product by State over Time (millions of chained 2009 dollars)Adj. Amount
RankChange Index
(YR 2009=100)
Change 2010 to 20148,771285.178

Per Capita Personal IncomeNumberRankPercent of U.S.
Per Capita Income - 2014$37,4934881.3 %
Per Capita Income - 2004 (adj. for inflation)$36,1734284.2 %
Per Capita Income - 1994 (adj. for inflation)$29,8014183.7 %
Per Capita Income - 1984 (adj. for inflation)$24,4984877.9 %
10-Year % Change3.6 %42
20-Year % Change25.8 %35
30-Year % Change53.0 %23